Deploying with PXD

PXD is a rapid deployment tool for PolarDB-X, supporting the quick installation and startup of the PolarDB-X distributed database on a set of servers by configuring through Yaml files. Before deploying the PolarDB-X database as described in this article, we assume the following prerequisites have been met:

A set of servers has been prepared, and server parameter configuration and software installation have been completed following System and Environment Configuration; The deployment machine (ops) has internet access, or you have already prepared the relevant software packages and images in advance as per Software Package Download.


First, we need to install python3 and virtual environment on the deployment machine (ops).

Installing Python3

If python3 is already installed on your machine, you can skip this step.

Python3 check command:

which python3

If there is a return, it means python3 is installed.

yum install -y python3

Installing Docker

PXD operates PolarDB-X databases within containers, making Docker installation a prerequisite. The use of a private image registry is also recommended. Instructions for Docker deployment can be found in the Installing Docker and Image Repository guide.

Installing PXD

Online Installation

For deployment machines (ops) with internet connectivity, online installation is the suggested method.

Installation and usage of PXD tool within a virtual environment is advised.

Begin by creating and activating a Python3 virtual environment with these commands:

python3 -m venv venv 
source venv/bin/activate

Proceed to update the Pip tool:

pip install --upgrade pip

To download and install the PXD tool via Aliyun's Pypi mirror:

pip install -i pxd

Upon successful installation, you can verify the PXD version with:

pxd version

Offline Installation

If the deployment environment does not have internet access, please refer to the Software Package Download section, download the corresponding architecture's offline installation package, and copy the offline package to the deployment machine (ops) within the deployment environment. The directory structure of the PXD offline installation package is as follows:

|-- images                                      # Docker image directory
|   |-- image.list                              # List of downloaded Docker images
|   |-- image.manifest                          # Offline environment image manifest, script parameters
|   |--                           # Script to import images in an offline environment
|   |-- polardbx-cdc-latest-arm64.tar.gz
|   |-- polardbx-engine-latest-arm64.tar.gz
|   |-- polardbx-init-latest-arm64.tar.gz
|   |-- polardbx-sql-latest-arm64.tar.gz
|   `-- xstore-tools-latest-arm64.tar.gz
|-- pxd-0.4.3-py3-none-any.whl                  # PXD installation package
`-- pxd-denpendency-arm64.tar.gz                # PXD's dependency package
`--                                  # Installation script

On the deployment machine (ops) in the deployment environment, execute the following command to enter the offline installation package directory and install PXD with one click and import the Docker images:

cd polardbx-install

The script primarily does the following:

  • Import the Docker images in the images directory and push them to the specified private repository. This document uses registry:5000 as an example.
  • Create a venv directory under the polardbx-install directory and install PXD within it.

After the installation script finishes executing, run the following command to verify that PXD is installed:

source polardbx-install/venv/bin/activate
pxd version

Directory Mapping

As PXD uses the $HOME/.pxd/data path to map the container data directory, it's necessary to symlink the path to the data disk in advance.

ansible -i ${ini_file} all -m shell -a " mkdir -p /polarx/data "
ansible -i ${ini_file} all -m shell -a " mkdir -p \$HOME/.pxd "
ansible -i ${ini_file} all -m shell -a " ln -s /polarx/data \$HOME/.pxd/data "

Check if the path is correctly mapped:

ansible -i ${ini_file} all -m shell -a " df -lh \$HOME/.pxd/data "

Deploying PolarDB-X

Planning the Cluster Topology

A PolarDB-X database cluster consists of Compute Nodes (CN), Data Nodes (DN), Global Meta Service (GMS), and as an optional feature, Change Data Capture (CDC) Nodes. The minimum deployment scale for a production environment involves three servers, while a typical database cluster contains at least two compute nodes, more than two sets of data nodes, one set of GMS nodes, and optionally, one set of CDC nodes. Data Nodes (DN) and the Global Meta Service (GMS) achieve high availability through the X-Paxos protocol. Thus, each set of data nodes or metadata services should consist of three independent replica container instances, which need to be deployed on different servers.

The main principles for planning the PolarDB-X cluster topology based on different server models/quantities are:

  • Due to different requirements for computing and I/O capabilities, it is recommended to deploy Compute Nodes (CN) and Data Nodes (DN) on two separate groups of servers.
  • Select servers with better I/O capabilities and larger disk space to deploy Data Nodes (DN); servers with weaker I/O but superior CPU capabilities should be allocated for Compute Nodes (CN).
  • If a single server has fewer than 16 CPUs, it is advisable to deploy one Compute Node (CN); otherwise, deploy multiple Compute Nodes.
  • All Compute Nodes (CN) should be allocated the same server resources to prevent the "weakest link effect" in the cluster, where the node with the least resources becomes a performance bottleneck. All Data Nodes (DN), except for log replicas, should follow the same principle.
  • The three replicas of the same set of Data Nodes should be deployed on three separate servers. The three replicas of different Data Nodes can be mixed on the same server to maximize server performance while ensuring high availability of the cluster.
  • The Global Meta Service (GMS) stores the cluster's metadata, and its three replicas should be deployed on three separate servers to ensure high availability.

Here is a cluster topology planned according to the above principles:

Server Server Specifications Node Container Limits Number of Containers 16c64G CN1 16c32G 1 16c64G CN2 16c32G 1 16c64G CN3 16c32G 1 32c128G DN1-1(leader) 16c50G 4
DN2-3(log) -
DN3-2(follower) 16c50G
GMS-1 8c16G 32c128G DN1-2(follower) 16c50G 4
DN2-1(leader) 16c50G
DN3-3(log) -
GMS-2 8c16G 32c128G DN1-3(log) - 4
DN2-2(follower) 16c50G
DN3-1(leader) 16c50G
GMS-3 8c16G

Note: The default memory limit for the DN's log node is set to 4GB, as the log only records events and requires minimal memory and CPU resources.

Preparing the Topology Configuration

First, you need to obtain the latest image tags for each PolarDB-X component with the following command:

curl -s "" | sh

The output will be as follows (taking PolarDB-X V2.4.0 as an example):

CN polardbx/polardbx-sql:v2.4.0_5.4.19
DN polardbx/polardbx-engine:v2.4.0_8.4.19
CDC polardbx/polardbx-cdc:v2.4.0_5.4.19

Based on the topology plan mentioned above, create the following Yaml file and modify the image tags according to the output:

vi polarx_pxd.yaml

Contents of the configuration file:

version: v1
type: polardbx
  name: pxc-product
    image: registry:5000/polardbx-engine:v2.4.0_8.4.19
    engine: galaxy
    engine_version: "8.0"
    host_group: [,,]
      mem_limit: 16G
      cpu_limit: 8
    image: registry:5000/polardbx-sql:v2.4.0_5.4.19
    replica: 3
      - host:
      - host:
      - host:
      mem_limit: 64G
      cpu_limit: 16
    image: registry:5000/polardbx-engine:v2.4.0_8.4.19
    engine: galaxy
    engine_version: "8.0"
    replica: 3
      - host_group: [,,]
      - host_group: [,,]
      - host_group: [,,]
      mem_limit: 50G
      cpu_limit: 16

Deploying the Database

Run the following command to quickly deploy a PolarDB-X cluster using PXD:

pxd create -file polarx_pxd.yaml -repo="registry:5000/"

Upon a successful creation, PXD will output in the log how to access the PolarDB-X data:

PolarDB-X cluster create successfully, you can try it out now.
Connect PolarDB-X using the following command:

    mysql -h192.168.1.102 -P54674 -upolardbx_root -p******
    mysql -h192.168.1.103 -P50236 -upolardbx_root -p******
    mysql -h192.168.1.104 -P52400 -upolardbx_root -p******

After creation, it's recommended to use PXD check to automatically adjust the current leader distribution of Data Nodes (DN):

pxd check pxc-product -t dn -r true

Accessing the Database

If the MySQL client is installed on the deployment machine (ops), you can connect to the PolarDB-X database and start using it with the following command:

mysql -h192.168.1.102 -P54674 -Ac -upolardbx_root -p******

After connecting successfully via the MySQL client, you can execute the following SQL to display information about the storage nodes:

MySQL [(none)]> show storage;

An example of the output:

| pxc-product-dn-0   | | true       | MASTER    | 5        | 21          | 0      | false     | null  | null   |
| pxc-product-dn-1   | | true       | MASTER    | 5        | 19          | 0      | true      | null  | null   |
| pxc-product-dn-2   | | true       | MASTER    | 5        | 19          | 0      | true      | null  | null   |
| pxc-product-gms    | | true       | META_DB   | 2        | 2           | 0      | false     | null  | null   |
4 rows in set (0.01 sec)

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